120 miles long is known as artificial waterway Suez Canal It has been a potential flashpoint for geopolitical conflict since opening in 1869. Now the canal, An important international shipping route, Is in the news for a different reason: a quarter-mile-long, Japanese-owned container ship en route from China to Europe Remained in the canal for days, Blocking over 100 ships and sending shocks to the world of maritime commerce.
Here are some basics on the history of the canal, how it operates, how Ship stuck and what does it mean.
Where is Suez Canal?
The Egyptian Canal connects Port Saeed in the Indian Ocean on the Mediterranean Sea via the Egyptian city of Suez in the Red Sea. The route enables more direct shipping between Europe and Asia, eliminating the need to broadcast to Africa and cut travel time by days or weeks.
Who built the Suez Canal and when?
The canal, originally owned by French investors, was conceived when Egypt was in control of the Ottoman Empire in the mid-19th century. Construction began at the end of Port Saeed in early 1859, excavation took 10 years, and the project required A. Estimated at 1.5 million workers.
according to Suez Canal Authority, The Egyptian government agency that operates the waterway was drafted to 20,000 farmers every 10 months to assist with “excruciating and poorly compensated labor” for the construction of the project. Many workers died of cholera and other diseases.
Political confrontation in Egypt against the colonial powers of Britain and France slowed progress on the canal, and the final cost was almost double the initial estimate of $ 50 million.
Which country now controls the canal?
The British forces, which controlled the canal through the first two world wars, withdrew the armies there after negotiations with Egypt in 1956, effectively empowering the Egyptian government under the leadership of President Gamal Abdel Nasser.
What was the ‘Suez Crisis’ that almost led to war?
The crisis began in 1956 when the President of Egypt nationalized the canal after the British left. He took other steps that deemed security threats by Israel and its Western allies, prompting military intervention by the Israeli, British, and French forces.
The crisis briefly closed the canal and risked confusing the Soviet Union and the United States. It ended in early 1957 under an agreement overseen by the United Nations, which sent it Peace Army for the first time in the area. The result was seen as a victory for Egyptian nationalism, but its legacy was an undercurrent in the Cold War.
Suez Crisis Season 2, episode 1 of “The Crown”, also had a theme. As the British Prime Minister of the time, the acclaimed Netflix series about Britain’s royals, Anthony Eden struggled over how to respond.
Has the canal been closed since then?
Egypt closed the canal for nearly a decade after the 1967 Arab-Israeli War, when the waterway was originally a front line between Israeli and Egyptian military forces. Fourteen cargo ships, known as the “Yellow Fleet”, while they were stranded in the canal Reopened in 1975 By Anwar Al Sadat, Mr. Nasir’s successor.
Some accidental grounding of the vessels has since led to the closure of the canal. The most notable, until this week, was a three-day shutdown in 2004 when a Russian oil tanker surrounded it.
Was the Suez Canal designed to handle the huge ship that had hit the ground?
Beach ship, operated by Ever Given Evergreen The shipping line is one of the largest container ships in the world, about the length of the Empire State Building.
Although the canal was originally engineered to handle very small vessels, its channels have been widened and deepened many times. As recently as six years ago at a cost of more than $ 8 billion.
What led to the grounding of the ship and what is being done about it now?
Poor visibility and strong winds, which act like ever given stacked containers, are believed to have closed it and caused its grounding.
Salvators have tried several measures: pulling it with tugboats, dredging the bottom of the hull and using a front-end loader to excavate the eastern embankment, where the bow is stuck. But the size and weight of the vessel was 200,000 metric tons Villagers frustrated as of Thursday night.
Some marine salvage experts have said that nature can succeed where the tug and dredger have failed. A seasonal high tide on Sunday or Monday can add a depth of about 18 inches to the canal, perhaps while the ship is swimming.
What are the effects if Ever Giving is stuck?
This depends on how long the canal, which handles about 10 percent of global maritime commercial traffic, is closed. Tradewinds, a maritime industry news publication, said it could take more than a week to clear that backlog, with more than 100 ships waiting to cross the canal.
A prolonged shutdown can be extremely expensive for owners of ships waiting to cross the canal. Some shipowners have already decided to re-cut their losses and the ships that were bound for the canal Instead around the Cape of Good Hope in Africa.
The owners of Ever Give are already facing millions of dollars in insurance claims and emergency rescue services costs. Egyptian government, which obtained $ 5.61 billion revenue from canal tolls in 2020, Has a significant interest in rerouting Ever Gives and reopening the waterway.